Building a home or a building is everyone’s dream. It seems so exciting, but it is definitely not that easy as it looks. The whole process requires a lot of research and time to get everything perfect. You have to pay attention to many details while building a house so that you will construct a strong and safe place for your family.
The first and most important decision is about the foundation. You have to decide what type of foundation you want under your house or any structure. There are actually many types of foundation system exist today. That’s why it is so important for you to know all about the various types of foundations. So that later you’ll decide which will work best for your place.
Most of the foundation types are depending on the region’s construction methods and climate. Don’t get confused with the foundations, read this article till the end. As today we have come with a complete guide on different types of foundation. We have categorized them so that you can easily understand the use of each foundation type. So let’s begin.
7 Types of Foundations
Foundations are basically classified into two categories:
- Shallow Foundation
- Deep Foundation
Let’s know about each of them one by one.
The depth of the shallow foundation is low and is also economical. That’s why it is the popular type of foundation, especially for lightweight structures. There are also various types of shallow foundations. Below is a list of different types of shallow foundations:
1. Individual Footing or Isolated Footing
Individual footing or an isolated footing is the most common type of shallow foundation. It is only constructed for a single column, which is also known as Pad Foundation.
Mostly Square and rectangle are the shapes of the individual footing, and it is used when the columns carry loads from the structure. Based on the soil capacity and load of the column, it’s size is decided.
2. Combined Footing
This footing is very similar to the isolated footing. This type of footing is constructed in the areas where the two isolated footings overlap each other. We can also say that when the foundations that are made common to more than one column are known as combined footings. But their structural design is different.
There are also various foundation types of combined footing such as slab and beam type, strap beam type, slab type, and rectangular & Raft footings. Their sizes are also varied from a square, trapezoidal to tee-shaped.
3. Strap Footing or Spread Footing
They are also very similar to combine footings, and even the reason for selecting a strap footing is the same as to the combined one. The spread footings have a broader base than the typical load-bearing wall foundations. They provide great support and stability to the building structure.
The foundation under the columns is built individually in the strap footing, and later, it is connected by a strap beam. The spread footings & wall footings are always used where the soil layer is within 3m (10 feet) from the ground surface for supporting individual walls, columns, and bridge piers.
4. Raft or Mat Foundation
Raft or mat foundations should be spread across the entire building area so that they can provide good support to the whole structure and any kind of heavy loads. They are known as Raft because the structure seems like a vessel. They are used when the other types of shallow foundations are not suitable for the area.
Mat foundations are suitable for soils whose bearing capacity is low. This type of foundation is also economical when half of the structure’s area is coated with other individual footings. And more importantly, they are not good for the places where the groundwater table is above the bearing surface of the soil.
They are usually made of T-beam slab or reinforced concrete slab, which is later placed over the entire area. In Raft or Mat foundation, the whole basement floor slab acts as the foundation, so the entire structure’s load spreads evenly over the complete area.
Now let’s know about the various types of Deep Foundations:
5. Pile Foundation
Pile Foundation is the most common type of deep foundation. It is used to transfer heavy loads from the building to hard rock strata (which is located deep below in the ground). The depth of hard rock strata varies from 5m to 50m (15 feet to 150 feet).
Like the other foundations, they also have different types:
On the basis of function Or Use
- End Bearing Piles
- Sheet Piles
- Friction Piles
- Load Bearing Piles
- Soil Compactor Piles
On the basis of Materials and the Construction Method
- Concrete Piles
- Composite Piles
- Timber Piles
- Steel Piles
Pile Foundations are usually used for soils where its conditions near the ground level are not suitable for heavy loads. Here the spread footings and mat footings cannot be used. Sometimes this type of foundation is also used to stop the structure from overturning from the lateral loads such as wind forces and earthquakes.
In terms of foundation repair – piering is the technique of driving steel pipe pilings to repair failing foundations. These steel piers or helical piers are driven deep into the ground through the unstable soil layers until they reach a solid soil layer. Then the piers are individually load tested. After testing, hydraulic jacks are used to lift the entire weight of the structure onto the piers.
6. Drilled Shafts or Caissons
Caisson Foundation is also known as Drilled shafts, which is used similar to the pile foundation. This type of foundation resists loads from building through toe resistance and shaft resistance. They are generally used in the areas that require a solid foundation underneath a river. There are also several types of caisson foundations:
- Pneumatic Caissons.
- Open Caissons
- Box Caissons.
- Floating Caissons.
- Excavated Caissons
The main thing about them is that they can be floated to the desired location, and later, we can sink it into the exact place, which makes all the work much more manageable. In simple words, it is a ready-made hollow cylinder that is put into the soil, and then it is filled with concrete to make it solid. Later it eventually converts to a strong foundation.
Another great thing about the drilled shafts is that they can transfer column loads larger than pile foundations. But it is not suitable for the soil made up of boulders.
7. Pier Foundation
When it comes to building foundations that matter all soil types are not created equal. Some types of soil are excellent for building foundations, others are OK, and some are to be avoided at all costs. Here are the details about – best soil types for building foundations.
Another type of deep foundation is the Pier Foundation. It is basically an underground structure that carries a more bulky load that cannot be carried by any other foundations. Pier foundation has many advantages, such as we can use various kinds of materials to build a stylish view, and there is also no need for broad removal of cement.
The foundation is the most crucial part of any building or structure. If it is not laid properly, then the whole structure can fall down. Depending upon the weather conditions and the building rules, you can select the foundation system that works best for you. Also, don’t forget about the other structural supporting members such as beam, column, and slabs.
After all, the foundation’s main objective is to provide stability to the entire structure and safely transfer the entire load from the building to the soil. For more amazing construction ideas and information, visit Housedecorationtip. There you’ll find a ton of blogs on home decoration ideas and cool DIY projects.